Research & Monitoring

Research


·         Additional information on USFWS funded projects is available here:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Funded Projects

 

·         To request changes or additions to this table, please contact Jonathan Reichard

 

Key to funding source abbreviations

BCI = Bat Conservation International

DoD = Department of Defense

Morris Animal = Morris Animal Foundation

NPS = National Park Service

NSF = National Science Foundation

NSS = National Speleological Society

NYDEC = New York Department of Environmental Conservation

USFS = United States Forest Service

USFWS = United States Fish and Wildlife Service

USGS = United States Geological Survey

 

 

WNS Research Grants

 

Year funded

Funding source

Investigators

Primary agency/ institution/ organization

Project title

Project description

 

2015

USFWS

Ford, W.M.

USGS

Assessment of residual northern long-eared bat reports and WNS leading-edge metrics

The goal of this study is to explore geographic patterns of distribution of remnant populations of northern long-eared bats.

 

2014

USFWS

Reeder, D;Field, K

Bucknell U

Physiological changes in remnant bat populations in WNS-affected areas

The goal of this study is to identify physiological characteristics of bats that have survived multiple years of infection with Pd and to determine if these characteristics may correspond with a shift that makes remnant populations less vulnerable to WNS.

 

2014

USFWS

Moore, M;Davalos, L;Russell, A

Stonybrook U

Uncovering skin immune proteins as predictors of resistance against WNS,

The goal of this study is to identify skin proteins involved in the immune responses of bats to fungal infection.

 

2014

USFWS

Slot, J; Reynolds, H

Ohio State U

The potential of mycoviruses for biocontrol of white-nose syndrome of bats

The goal of this study is to identify viruses that infect Pd and determine the how these may affect the fungus' fitness.

 

2014

USFWS

Barton, H

U Akron

Factors of the innate immune response that protect Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) from infection by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the agent of white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to understand the role skin secretions of Virginia big eared bats may have in combatting infection by Pd.

 

2014

USFWS

Foster, J;Drees, K

U New Hampshire

Genomic differences between Pseudogymnoascus destructans and closely-related fungi from bat hibernacula: insights into fungal pathogenicity, physiology, and ecology

The goal of this study is to investigate the molecular makeup of Pd to identify genes that contribute to its pathogenicity in bats.

 

2014

USFWS

Goldberg, T;Blehert, D

U Wisconsin, Madison

Characterization of bat skin microbiomes during progression of white-nose syndrome to inform biologic interventions

The goal of this study is to understand how infection with Pd affects native microbial abundance on bat skin.

 

2014

USFWS

Keller, N;Kelleher, N

U Wisconsin, Madison

Identification and characterization of Pseudogymnoascus destructans immunomodulatory secondary metabolites

The goal of this study is to identify the physiological processes used by Pd to invade skin tissue of bats.

 

2014

USFWS

Sandeno, C;Zokaites, C

USFS

Development of educational tools to inform and engage the public in bat conservation and white-nose syndrome efforts (Project Edubat)

This funding is being used to develop a program and supporting material to educate the public about WNS and bat conservation

 

2014

USFWS

Hicks, A;Darling, S;Herzog, C

Vesper Environmental

Determining over-winter survival of Myotis septentrionalis and Myotis lucifugus in Aeolus Cave

The goal of this study is to quantify survival rates of bats hibernating in a cave that has been heavily impacted by WNS over the past seven years.

 

2014

USFWS

Vonhof, M;Eversole, R;Carter, T;Keel, K

Western Michigan U

Additional testing of the efficacy of chitosan to limit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans on experimentally-infected bats

This continuing study is developing a potential treatment that will hinder growth of Pd on bats or in hibernacula.

 

2014

USFWS; NPS

Castle, K;;;;;;

NPS

Testing cleaning and disinfection products for efficacy against Pseudogymnoascus destructans

The goal of this study is to identify and test possible decontaminating and disinfecting agents useful in cleaning gear and minimizing the possible spread of Pd from infected caves.  Through this effort, researchers will identify agents suitable for footbaths and other decontamination methods used at commercial caves and cave parks.

 

2014

USFWS; USFS

Lindner, D;;;;;;

USFS

Using genomics and transcriptomics to understand and combat WNS: Determining and targeting virulence factors in Pseudogymnoascus destructans

The goal of this study is to identify the molecular tool-box for virulence in Pd.  This information will inform efforts to develop Pd-management strategies that reduce the may reduce the virulence of the fungus to bats.

 

2014

USFWS; USFS

Loeb, S;;;;;;

USFS

Survival and dispersal of cave-hibernating bats in the southern and midwestern U.S following WNS infection

The goal of this study is to initiate a large scale banding effort to monitor impacts of WNS on bats in the southeast and midwest.

 

2014

USFWS; USGS

Ballmann, A;;;;;;

USGS

Expanded surveillance for the detection of Pseudogymnoascus destructans distribution and spread of WNS in the continental United States

The goal of this project is to expand the network of diagnostic labs involved in the national effort to conduct surveillance of Pd. The efforts will expand the use of swabbing and PCR analyses to detect the fungus.

 

2014

USFWS; USGS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Management of bat white-nose-syndrome through protective skin fungi and activation of host immune response

The goal of this study is to explore the potential WNS-mitigating role of naturally occurring skin microbes on bats.

 

2014

USFWS; USGS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Management of bat white-nose-syndrome by suppression of pathogenic environmental reservoirs

The goal of this effort is to identify characteristics of fungistatic soils and explore the possibility of influencing these characteristics to reduce the potential for cave soils to serve as reservoirs for Pd.

 

2014

USFWS; USGS

Rocke, T;;;;;;

USGS

Oral vaccines and delivery methods for controlling disease in bats

The goal of this project is to develop an oral delivery mechanism to distribute vaccines among colonial roosting bats.  Related studies are underway to identify possible vaccines for WNS.

 

2014

USFWS; USGS; NPS; USFS; Idaho GFD

Ellison, L;Rodhouse, T;Loeb, S;;;;

USGS

NABat framework development and 2014 pilot

The goal of this project is to develop the sampling framework for NABat and conduct a pilot study of this framework in Idaho.

 

2013

BCI

Boyles, J;Maine, J;;;;;

Southern Illinois U

Top-down suppression of herbivory by bats in agroecosystems

This study will use a large-scale exclosure experiment in a corn-dominated landscape to evaluate the top-down suppression of bats on crop pests. Researchers will evaluate the progression and density of crop pests and the actual damage done to corn plants to better understand the ecosystem services provided by insectivorous bats.

 

2013

BCI

Puechmaille, S;;;;;;

U College Dublin

Identifying the European source population of North American Geomyces destructans

The goals of this study are to identify the distribution of Gd across Europe via  systematic sediment sampling, wall swabbing and when appropriate, bat swabbing and to identify the source population of North American Gd using additional genotyping for European isolates.

 

2013

BCI

Hoyt, J;;;;;;

U California, Santa Cruz

The role of beneficial bacteria in protecting bats from white-nose syndrome

 

2013

Morris Animal

Kunz, T;;;;;;

Boston U

Survey bat populations to gauge disease risk

Researchers will survey the genetic diversity of little brown myotis populations at swarming sites and near hibernation locations used in fall and winter to learn how these bats disperse. They will then use the data to predict the bats’ migration routes and identify other bat populations at risk.

 

2013

Morris Animal

Sorenson, M;;;;;;

Boston U

White-nose syndrome research at Boston University

The goal of this project is to support ongoing efforts on little brown myotis genomics and MHC (and perhaps other immune system genes). 

 

2013

Morris Animal

Keeler, S;;;;;;

U California, Davis

Improving methods for studying white-nose syndrome in bats

The goal of this study is to look at methods for improving the growth and maintenance of fungal cultures in the laboratory, allowing researchers to study the disease process and test potential treatments. 

 

2013

NPS

Castle, K;Glaesser, J;;;;;

NPS

Decontamination agents for use at parks and show caves

The goal of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of agents that can be used to clean shoes and equipment used in caves.  In particular, agents useful to decontaminate and/or denature P.d. that may be picked up by tourists visiting commercial or show caves will be tested and assessed to permit this specific application. 

 

2013

USFWS

Britzke, E;;;;;;

DoD

Investigation into the torpor patterns of hibernating gray bats: Implications for WNS

The goal of this study is to quantify body temperature and arousal frequencies in free-ranging gray bats.  These efforts seek to improve our understanding of how hibernation ecology and behavior in this species may influence its susceptibility to WNS.

 

2013

USFWS

Willis, C;;;;;;

U Winnipeg

Laboratory studies of host-pathogen interactions between Geomyces destructans and bats

The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that hypotonic dehydration affects torpor arousal cycles and survival, and evaluate the feasibility of electrolyte supplementation as a non-chemical treatment for WNS

 

2013

USFWS

Amelon, S;Tomasi, T;;;;;

USFS

Frequency and progression of Geomyces destructans infection and white-nose syndrome (WNS) on gray bats (Myotis grisescens) held in captivity

The goal of this study is to determine the degree to which Myotis grisescens develop symptoms of WNS in environmental chambers.  Bats were collected from WNS positive sites and housed under controlled conditions to monitor progression of the disease (if infected) and to test captive conditions most appropriate for housing this species.

 

2013

USFWS

Lindner, D;;;;;;

USFS

Determining the importance of environmental reservoirs in disease development and transmission of white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to better understand the importance of soil as a reservoir for Gd and to determine the timing of when the fungus infests soils.

 

2013

USFWS

Hicks, A;;;;;;

Vesper Environmental

Band retention, band-related mortality, and the consequences of winter handling, on Myotis lucifugus near the WNS zone

The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of the costs of banding and the costs of winter disturbances in bats to determine which management and research actions are worth the risk in combating WNS.

 

2013

USFWS (LCC, WNS), NIMBioS

Loeb, S;Coleman, J;Ingersoll, T;Ellison, L;Rodhouse, T;;

USFS

Developing a comprehensive modeling strategy for estimating trends in North American bat species distributions and abundances

The goal of this project is to develop a continental framework for monitoring bat populations.  The framework will use mobile and stationary acoustic monitoring, and colony count data fed into the Bat Population Data Project.

 

2012

BCI

Fuller, N;Willis, C;;;;;

Boston U

Understanding the critical recovery phase: Laboratory studies of wing healing in survivors of white-nose syndrome

 This study will address critical knowledge gaps in physical and physiological challenges of recovery from WNS by quantifying the healing process using histopathology and photographic analysis, quantifying the relationship between wing healing and physiological function, and using molecular methods to determine the
temporal relationship between Gd infectivity and the healing process in active bats.

 

2012

BCI

Cornelison, C;Keel, K;Crow, S;;;;

Georgia State U

Evaluation of multiply induced Rhodococchus rhodochrous DAP 96253 cells for in situ application as a biological control agent of Geomyces destructans

 

2012

BCI

Foster, J;Drees, K;;;;;

Northern Arizona U

Evaluating sensitive molecular detection of Geomyces destructans

 The goal of this study is to evaluate a dual-probe TaqMan qPCR assay that is capable of detecting and quantifying both Gd and its close allies in Geomyces, and yet distinguish between them.  Researchers will optimize and validate DNA extraction methods to obtain fungal DNA from samples relevant to WNS research such as bat skin swabs, tissue biopsies, soil, and guano.

 

2012

BCI

Frick, W;Kilpatrick, M;Willis, C;Cheng, T;;;

U California, Santa Cruz

Laboratory studies of acquired resistance to Geomyces destructans

The goal of this study is to use laboratory infection trails with first year survivors to investigate acquired resistance to Gd infection and its potential relationship to survivorship in the second year of infection. Researchers will test reinfection in both captive and wild survivors.

 

2012

NSS

Moore, M;Haussmann, M;;;;;

Bucknell U

The role of oxidative stress in the development of white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress in morbidity and mortality of little brown myotis with WNS.  This study will provide new knowledge about the proximate cause of death from WNS.

 

2012

NSS

Lee, M;Cui, Y;Keel, MK;Last, L;;;

Miami U (Ohio)

Effects of temperature on germination of Geomyces destructans from WNS affected regions of the United States

The goal of this study is to investigate differences in germination rates and frequencies for G. destructans isolates collected over a broad geographic range.  Researchers will explore geographical differences in G. destructans' response to temperature.

 

2012

NSS

Seeliger, R;Tomasi, T;;;;;

Missouri State U

Monitoring gray bat (Myotis grisescens) populations at a priority 1 hibernaculum in Missouri

The goal of this study is to compare automated counting software for thermal infrared video footage of gray bats at a hibernaculum.

 

2012

NSS

Turner, G;Butchkoski, C;Herzog, C;Martinkova, N;;;

PA Game Commission

An investigation and comparison of fluorescent activity among three classes of bats: naive, presumed survivors, and European

The goal of this study is to develop non-lethal diagnostic tools involving fluorescence of G. destructans under UV light.

 

2012

Research Foundation of SUNY

Morgan, S;Wang, I;Davis, A;Davalos, L;Moore, M;;

SUNY, Albany

The effects of WNS on genetic drift in bat populations

The goal of this study is to document the probable genetic drift in Myotis lucifugus in the epicenter of WNS outbreak (using neutral microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA with samples from 2003-2005 and 2008-2011, representing the population before and after the major mortality occurring during 2006-2007 in that region. Tissue samples are collected primarily from bats submitted to the NYS Department of Health for rabies testing.

 

2012

Society for Conservation Biology

Hayman, D;;;;;;

Colorado State University

Understanding white-nose syndrome dynamics to mitigate the precipitous decline of North American bats

The goal of this study is to integrate modeling and empirical field and lab studies to  develop a conceptual framework for disease ecology that allows predictions to be made about which bat species in North America are likely to be affected by WNS, and allow comparative studies between European and American systems.

 

2012

USFWS

Reeder, D;Field, K;;;;;

Bucknell University

Understanding WNS survivors: Exploring resilience and resistance to variable levels of Geomyces destructans exposure in context of mitigation and conservation

This study focuses on understanding why a small number of bats survive WNS and determining if these bats can withstand multiple winters of exposure to WNS

 

2012

USFWS

Chaturvedi, V;Chaturvedi, S;;;;;

NY State Dept Health

Fungal biocontrol agents for alleviation or remediation of Geomyces destructans

The goal of this study is to identify the most effective fungal biocontrol agent(s) against Gd.

 

2012

USFWS

Frick, W;Kilpatrick, AM;Willis, C;Foster, J;;;

U California, Santa Cruz

Antifungal skin microbes as tools for WNS management

The goal of this study is to identify the presence of beneficial bacteria on bats that can reduce the growth of Pd in culture

 

2012

USFWS

Willis, C;Bollinger, T;Misra, V;Cryan, P;Frick, W;Wibbelt, G;Kilpatrick, AM

U Winnipeg

Studies of host-pathogen interactions between Geomyces destructans and bats

0

 

2012

USFWS

Willis, C;Boyles, J;Foster, J;Frick, W;Kilpatrick, AM;;

U Winnipeg

Pre- and post-WNS survival of bats assessed using passive transponders on a continental scale

The goal of this study is to PIT-tag and archive genetic samples from 10,000 bats to aid in surveillance of and studies for WNS.

 

2012

USFWS

Ballmann, A;Blehert, D;Meteyer, C;Russell, R;;;

USGS

Assessing the risk of Geomyces destructans transmission by bats that occupy contaminated hibernacula in late summer

The goal of this study is to investigate the potential for bats using caves within WNS epidemic areas during late summer to harbor viable Pd and serve as potential risks for pathogen transmission among bats during fall swarm activities and/or source of pathogen movement to previously uncontaminated hibernacula.  Presence of Pd on bats, gear, and substrates was determined by swabbing and PCR analysis.

 

2012

USFWS

Blehert, D;Verant, M;;;;;

USGS

Characterization of climatic parameters within bat hibernacula, their influence on environmental loads of Geomyces destructans, and implications for the mitigation of white-nose syndrome in bats

The goal of this study is to characterize conditions within and among six representative bat hibernacula in the eastern US, which will aid in understanding the role of the environment in WNS epidemiology and provide a basis by which to assess the effectiveness of WNS management strategies.

 

2012

USFWS

Vonhof, M;Carter, T;Keel, MK;;;;

Western Michigan U

Test of biocompatible, biodegradable, widely available and inexpensive anti-fungal agent on the growth of G. destructans on experimentally infected bats under controlled laboratory conditions

The goal of this study is to test the efficacy of chitosan as a treatment option against Pd. The set of preliminary tests found that chitosan significantly reduced fungal loads on bats that were treated early in the hibernation season, showing that this may be an effective treatment plan for WNS.

 

2011

0

Drees, K;Foster, J;;;;;

Northern Arizona U

Quantitative PCR for detection of Geomyces destructans

 

2011

BCI

Kunz, T;Fuller, N;;;;;

Boston U

The impact of wing damage caused by white-nose syndrome in little brown myotis

 

2011

BCI

Langwig, K;;;;;;

Boston U

Host community susceptibility to white-nose syndrome, US (NY, VT, CT, PA).

 

2011

BCI

Buckles, E;Kunz, T;;;;;

Cornell U

Can hibernating bats mount an immune response to skin disease?

 

2011

BCI

Lee, M;;;;;;

Miami U (Ohio)

Genetic structure of Ozark big-eared bat populations and establishment of a noninvasive population-monitoring program (OK, AR).

 

2011

BCI

Janicki, A;Tomasi, T;;;;;

Missouri State U

Energetic abnormalities of white-nose syndrome in bats

 

2011

BCI

Barton, H;;;;;;

Northern Kentucky U

Species differences and innate immunity to Geomyces colonization in bat populations.

 

2011

BCI

Powers, L;;;;;;

U Illinois

Effects of nonlethal Geomyces destructans infection on reproductive rate and parturition date in cave-hibernating bats, US (IL).

 

2011

NSF

Kunz, T;McCracken, G;Kilpatrick, M;Frick, W;Foster, J;;

Boston U

The effect of sociality on transmission and spread of a multi-host pathogen

The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the WNS disease is transmitted at local, regional, and continental scales.  Focus  on bat social behavior, such as the size of congregating groups and assortment within groups, which are known to vary both within and between bat species during different seasons. Hypothesize that disease transmission from bat-to-bat and cave-to-cave is affected by temporal and spatial variation in how bat social groups are organized.

 

2011

NSS

Fuller, N;Kunz, T;;;;;

Boston U

The impact of wing damage caused by white-nose syndrome in little brown myotis

The goal of this study is to determine the influence of severe wing damage on foraging effort and reproductive success, and to quantify the degree to which bats recover from wing injuries.

 

2011

NSS

McAlpine, D;Vanderwolf, K;;;;;

Canadian Wildlife Federation

A proposal to collect and culture fungi from WNS-infected bats to determine if pre- and post-WNS fungal communities differ and to identify any fungi present that may have the potential to interact with G. destructans

The goal of this study is to track the arrival of WNS in New Brunswick, monitor epidemiological data and examine the broader fungal community on WNS-infected bats.

 

2011

NSS

Hughes, K;Northup, D;;;;;

U New Mexico

Natural micro-biome of bats

The goal of this study is to establish baseline data on microbiota for two prominent western bat species that may be susceptible to WNS.

 

2011

NSS

Sousa, M;Cox, S;Newkirk, K;;;;

U Tennessee

Evaluation of a terbinafine impregnated subcutaneous implant for the treatment of Geomyces destructans infected bats

The goal of this study is to test the efficacy of subcutaneous implants of antifungal terbinafine to curb G. destructans infection in bats.  Researchers conducted histopathology on tissues of subjects and developed assays to measure terbinafine implants in skin.

 

2011

USFWS

Taylor;Yannarell;Miller;Heske;Mateus-Pinilla;Merritt;

0

White-nose syndrome and Illinois bat populations: Biology and monitoring

The goal of this study is to establish a monitoring program for the rapid and early detection of the fungus, G. destructans, on bat specimens from  Illinois, characterize the background microbial load present in the fur of potential bat vectors of G. destructans, and characterize the establishment potential of G. destructans in Illinois cave environments.

 

2011

USFWS

Chaturvedi, V;Chaturvedi, S;;;;;

NY State Dept Health

A systematic study of Geomyces destructans within WNS infected hibernacula in New York

The goals of this study are to define the natural habitat of G. destructans,  determine if it grows in the hibernacula environment or exclusively on bats, and study other fungi that share similar natural habitats and their roles in fungal survival.

 

2011

USFWS

Keel, MK;;;;;;

U Georgia

Applied research designed to assist mitigation of white-nose syndrome in bats

The goal of this study is to refine the use of tissue explants (small samples of live skin from bat patagia) as a model of white-nose syndrome, describe the pathogenesis of white-nose syndrome in bats, and assess the ability of G. destructans to infect bat skin of multiple species.

 

2011

USFWS

Amelon, S;;;;;;

USFS

Estimating the value of ecosystem services provided by bats

The goal of this study is to estimate the economic value of bats in pest control services to both agricultural and forest systems in various areas of the region.

 

2011

USFWS; USGS

Blehert, D;Lindner, D;Gargas, A;;;;

USGS

Characterization of Geomyces spp. fungi closely related to G. destructans

 

2011

USGS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Development of enhanced sampling and diagnostic techniques

 

2011

USGS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Investigations of the environmental persistence of G. destructans

 

2010

Broad Institute, MIT

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Geomyces destructans genome sequencing project

The goal of this study is to sequence the genome of Geomyces destructans.

 

2010

Morris Animal

Kunz, T;Sorenson, M;;;;;

Boston U

Assessing population genetic structure and gene flow in the little brown myoti, Myotis lucifugus

 

2010

NSS

Kunz, T;Moore, M;;;;;

Boston U

Measuring cytokine profiles in hibernating Myotis lucifugus affected by white-nose syndrome: assessment of immunocomptetence levels in bats affected versus unaffected bats

The goal of this study is to determine levels of immunocompetence related to WNS, physiological restraints of hibernation, and states of euthermia.  This effort incorporates cytokine profile assays into a multifaceted study of immunocompetence that includes batericidal and fungicidal assays, circulating antibodies, Creactive proteins, antioxidants, neutrophyl/lymphocite ratios, and white blood cell counts.

 

2010

NSS

Whidden, H;Williams, S;Turner, G;;;;

East Stroudsburg U

Assessment of bat activity in Luzerne County, PA, after white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to assess regional bat population declines on the summer landscape.  Researchers will use acoustic monitoring at a wind turbine site for comparison of data pre-WNS and post-WNS.

 

2010

NYDEC

Okoeniewski, J;;;;;;

NYDEC

Summer transmission of WNS

The goals of this study are to investigate persistence and detectability of G. destructans after emergence from hibernation and during summer months.

 

2010

USFWS

Reeder, D;Willis, C;Franck, J;;;;

Bucknell U

Who will survive? Exploring individual, sex, and species differences in susceptibility and resistance to WNS

The goal of this study is to describe between-species and within-species variation in response to infection with Gd (including the potential lack of infection in some species/individuals, who may be exposed to the fungus [PCR+], but not develop WNS). Determine whether natural selection for traits leading to resistance against Gd/WNS is plausible.

 

2010

USFWS

Amelon, S;Knudsen, G;;;;;

USFS

Evaluation of non-pathogenic bat skin microbes for antagonistic activity to Geomyces destructans

The goal of this study is to evaluate non-pathogenic bat skin microbes for antagonistic activity to Geomyces destructans by obtaining representative isolates of skin bacteria and fungi from selected bat species.  They will screen isolates for antagonistic activity towards Geomyces destructans, and ultimately, test the most promising antagonists as potential biological control agents for white-nose syndrome.

 

2010

USFWS

Amelon, S;Knudsen, G;Oyler, S;Eggert, L;;;

USFS

Assessing the impact of WNS on the genetic viability of Indiana bats.

The goal of this study is to model population structure for Indiana bats to predict migration pathways, genetic loss, and risk of extinction, and compare genetic info of affected and non-affected individuals. They will obtain representative isolates of skin bacteria and fungi from selected bat species,  and screen them for antagonistic activity towards G. destructans.

 

2010

USFWS

Foster, J;;;;;;

Northern Arizona U

Fine-scale population structure in Gd: fungal genetics for understanding dispersal, transmission, and effects of WNS

The goals of this study are to develop microsatellites, grow and extract fungal DNA, initial testing and screening of microsatellites, and analyze genetic data.

 

2010

USFWS

Barton, H;;;;;;

Northern Kentucky U

Natural history of Geomyces in cave environments: phylogeny, ecosystem activities, natural and anthropogenic transport

The goal of this study is to determine how G. destructans may be spread by both natural and human activities with attention to growth and niche preferences.   Researchers will develop a library of Geomyces species from different hibernacula over a geographic area.

 

2010

USFWS

Maslo, B;Valent, M;Gumbs, J;;;;

Rutgers U, NJDFW

Survival Analysis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) in the Wake of White-Nose Syndrome

The goal of this project is to conduct post-WNS pre-emergence banding of little brown bats at Hibernia Mine in New Jersey. This project was initiated in 2010 and after 4 years of mark-recapture efforts, strong support for the presence of a time-varying amelioration of annual survival was found. However, Hibernia Mine is still experiencing an overall decline in abundance, suggesting a strong WNS-induced penalty on 1st-year survival and/or fecundity. Banding efforts will continue to establish a long-term post-WNS survival dataset, and a separate analysis of post-WNS female reproductive success and juvenile survival will be initiated.

 

2010

USFWS

Akiyoshi, D;Morrison, H;Robbins, A;;;;

Tufts U

A transcriptome approach to study the host-pathogen interactions in WNS

The goal of this study is to identify fungal pathogenicity factors that may provide insight into disease management strategies. They will generate transcriptome profiles from pure Gd cultures (two USA and two European), three uninfected M. lucifugus from the USA, and three M. lucifugus infected with Gd (USA), compare generated profiles, and analyze changes in gene expression levels on a genome-wide scale with the goal to identify both host and fungal genes associated with the infection process.

 

2010

USFWS

Lindner, D;Gargas, A;Foster, J;Glaeser, J;;;

USFS

Development of DNA-based detection techniques capable of differentiating Gd from closely related non-pathogenic Geomyces species

The goal of this study is to produce the entire genome sequence of 8 Geomyces isolates that are closely related to G. destructans and develop and test DNA-based detection methods on a variety of sample types, including cave soil samples, bat fecal samples and bat swab samples.

 

2010

USFWS; USGS

Willis, C;Blehert, D;Cryan, P;Misra, V;Reeder, D;;

U Winnipeg

Evaluating the pathogenicity of North American and European strains of Gd in cave bats, tree bats, and other mammalian hibernators

The goal of this study is to determine the susceptibility of North American little brown bats to European isolates of Gd and quantify the severity of physiological and histopathological signs of infection between European and North America isolates of the fungus.  Determine the propensity of North American big brown bats and silver-haired bats to become infected with Gd (relative to little brown bats) and quantify the severity of physiological and histopathological signs of infection among these species.  Test the dehydration hypothesis by comparing physiological measurements from infected vs. control little brown, silver-haired and big brown bats following infection with Gd.

 

2010

USGS

Cryan, P;;;;;;

USGS

Assessing homeostatic balance in bats affected by WNS

 

2010

Unknown

Gates, W;;;;;;

USFWS

WNS fungal sampling at "rest stop caves" in Alabama

The goal of this study is to assess the potential for human mediated spread of WNS fungus

 

2009

Frick, W;;;;;;

Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus

The goal of this study is to use 16 years of mark-recapture data from a maternity colony of little brown bats to research and investigations to attempt to estimate annual survival and breeding probabilities. This information can then be used to predict how climate changes may affect bat population stability.

 

2009

Smith, R.;;;;;;

White-nose syndrome regional surveillance and winter hibernacula surveys

The goal of this project is to provide information on the emergence of WNS and the action plans in response to the disease and its mortality rate. The objectives of this project include coordinating field surveillance, research projects, data collection, hibernacula surveys, specimen collection and submission, and public outreach for WNS in Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.

 

2009

Gargas, A;Christensen, M;Volk, T.J.;Blehert, D.;;;

USGS

Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to determine that the fungus responsible for WNS is a new species of fungus called Geomyces destructans.

 

2009

Meteyer., C;Buckles, E;Blehert, D.;Hicks, A;Green, E;Thomas, N;Shearn-Bochsler, V

USGS

Histopathological criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

The goal of this study is to report details surrounding the histopathological criteria used to confirm WNS in bats. Includes studies and finding. Histopathological confirmation is an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable way to diagnose this disease.

 

2009

USFWS; USGS

Cryan, P;Everette, A;Coleman, J;;;;

USGS

WNS Specimen Tracking System

The goal of this study is to provide technical assistance to the USFWS Region 5 to construct a geospatially oriented data support system for tracking information on WNS specimens (e.g., carcasses, tissues), from collection through analysis.

 

2009

BCI

Reeder, D;;;;;;

Bucknell U

Studying immune competence in “healthy” bats and bats affected by white-nose syndrome

 

2009

BCI

Herzog, C;Hicks, A;;;;;

NYDEC

A proposal to design an automated bat counter

 

2009

BCI

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Demonstrating a causal link between a Geomyces spp. fungus and white-nose syndrome in little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus).

 

2009

NSS

Pannkuk, E;;;;;;

Arkansas State U

Fungal digestion of Chiropteran integument

The goal of this study is to quantify the amount of mechanical damage caused to bat integument by invasion of the G. destructans.  Methods involve in vitro analysis of the timing and extent of mechanical damage by Gd in little brown bats. 

 

2009

NSS

Brownlee, S;;;;;;

Bucknell U

Behavior of bats affected by white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to describe the behavioral responses of bats to different temperatures and WNS presence in natural hibernacula and in captivity.  Researchers will use digital video recorders and acoustic equipment to determine if bats are echolocating while hibernating and identify specific activities during arousal bouts.

 

2009

NSS

Grieneisen, L;;;;;;

Bucknell U

Hibernacula microclimate and white-nose syndrome susceptibility

The goal of this study is to describe the relationship between hibernacula microclimate and progression of WNS, and to determine the microclimate preferences in WNS-affected and unaffected bats.

 

2009

NSS

Barton, H;;;;;;

Northern Kentucky U

Decontamination issues and the natural history of Geomyces species in cave environments

The goal of this study is to develop decontamination techniques that can be used by field researchers and recreational cavers to limit the spread of WNS.  Tests were conducted with G. pannorum.  Additional analyses to understand the presence and scope of Geomyces species in caves to address questions about the origin of Gd.

 

2009

NSS

Orndorff, W;;;;;;

Virginia DCR, NHP

Fall swarm monitoring and tracking of Virginia bats affected by white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to assess species biometric and health status at WNS+ and WNS- caves in Virginia.  Bats were captured in harp traps during the fall swarm.

 

2009

NSS

Reynolds, R;Orndorff;;;;;

Virginia DGIF

Fall swarm monitoring and tracking of Virginia bats affected by WNS

The goals of this study are to capture, assess, and band bats at both WNS positive and negative locations, band bats to facilitate tracking of WNS in individuals, and conduct surveillance of bats at WNS positive and negative sties in Virginia.

 

2009

USFWS

Williams;;;;;;

WNS investigation and response – competitive state wildlife grants program

 

2009

USFWS

Kunz, T;Reichard, J;;;;;

Boston U

Changes in body composition and immune responses in pre-hibernating and hibernating little brown myotis affected and unaffected by WNS.

The goal of this study is to assess changes in various aspects of immune response in hibernating bats.  Immune assays are analyzed in relation to stages of hibernation, availability of fat reserves, and states of torpor.

 

2009

USFWS

Kunz, T;Sorenson, M;;;;;

Boston U

Investigation of body composition, immunocompetence, activity patterns and genetic correlates to understand WNS effects on hibernating bats

The goal of this study is to examine innate and adaptive immune responses for active and hibernating bats in WNS-affected and unaffected hibernacula. Destructive body composition analyses were conducted on little brown myotis measured for immunocompetence.  Tissue samples were collected for genetic analyses to characterize the genetic makeup at the MHC for T cell responses.

 

2009

Kershmer, J;Valent, M;;;;;

NJDFW

Experimental treatment of captive WNS affected little brown bats with vinegar wash

The goal of this study is to determine whether vinegar wash treatment or simple rehabilitative care will "cure" WNS affected bats.

 

2009

USFWS

Barton, H;Keel, MK;;;;;

Northern Kentucky U

The propagation and decontamination of WNS in the environment 

The goals of this study are to provide updates on the treatment of rope and mist-net samples using Woolite/Lysol, which may also be effective for cave/hibernacula equipment; the use and effectiveness of Agent C in a hibernacula; and the creation of a fungal library.

 

2009

USFWS

Hicks, A;Darling, S;;;;;

NYDEC

Testing the transmission of WNS from hibernacula to the little brown bat

The goal of this study is to test transmission of WNS from an infected cave to healthy little brown myotis

 

2009

USFWS

Butchkoski, C;Duchamp, J;;;;;

PA Game Commission

Summer maternity bat colony – emergence counts and/or trapping surveys

The goal of this study is to conduct long-term maternity colony monitoring to investigate presence and health effects of WNS on bats during summer. Investigators will develop a regional database for these data.

 

2009

USFWS

Songsasen, N;Wildt, D;;;;;

Smithsonian Institution National Zoological Park

Establishing a security population of the Virginia big-eared bat at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park

The goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of establishing a population of Virginia big-eared bats in captivity.

 

2009

USFWS

Akiyoshi, D;Robbins, A;;;;;

Tufts U

Generation of G. destructans specific monoclonal antibodies

The goal of this study is to generate and characterize monoclonal antibodies against G. destructans to help develop rapid, sensitive field tests for the fungus. They will characterize  monoclonal antibodies by isotype analysis, cross-reactivity studies with bacteria, fungi and other organisms, which represent common bat cave flora, and Western blot analysis (to identify sizes and number of cross-reacting proteins).

 

2009

USFWS

Robbins, A;Akiyoshi, D;;;;;

Tufts U

Generation of Geomyces destructans-specific monoclonal antibodies

 

2009

USFWS

Hallam, T;McCracken, G;Dimitrov, D;Federico, P;Nichols, J;;

U Tennessee

Effects of white-nose syndrome on hibernating bat populations: Application of stochastic mathematical models

The goal of this study is to outline three priorities that have been investigated in relation to WNS: 1). Estimate the probabilities for infection in uninfected hibernacula; 2). Formulate and optimize control strategies; and 3). Demonstrate environmental conditions that govern the structure of WNS to discover more about Gd. Progress in each priority has been outlined, and preliminary abstracts have been provided.

 

2009

USFWS

Secord, A;;;;;;

USFWS

Evaluation of the potential role of environmental contaminants in significant bat mortality in the northeastern United States

The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential role of environmental contaminants in the recent massive mortality of thousands of bats in the northeastern United States known as white-nose syndrome.

 

2009

USFWS

Iwanowicz, D;King, T;;;;;

USGS

Differential expression profiles of miRNA in the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with WNS affected and unaffected individuals

The goals of this study are to develop and validate miRNA profiles as suitable biomarkers of little brown bat physiological condition and health.  WNS affected and healthy bats will be compared to identify diagnostic profiles that may be used to predict at risk populations prior to the manifestation of clinical evidence of WNS

 

2009

USFWS; DoD

Herzog, C;Britzke, E;;;;;

NYDEC

Acoustic monitoring of bat populations

The goal of this study is to conduct long-term acoustic transect surveys to evaluate changes in species composition and relative abundance.

 

2009

USFWS; NSS

Blehert, D;Hicks, A;Youngbaer, P;Kunz, T;;;

USGS

Geographic distribution of the psychrophilic fungus (Geomyces sp.) associated with white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to document the geographic distribution of G. destructans in cave sediments.

 

2009

UUSFWS; Stantec

Darling, S;Stantec;;;;;

Vermont FWD

WNS acoustic monitoring project at Grandpa’s Knob, Rutland County, Vermont

The goal of this study is to repeat acoustic surveys conducted for a proposed wind farm in the Lake Champlain area of VT to determine whether a trend can be detected as a result of elevated mortality levels due to WNS in VT and NY hibernacula.

 

2009

USFWS; USGS

Thogmartin, W;;;;;;

USGS

Population demographic models for the conservation of endangered Indiana bats at risk to white-nose syndrome.

The goal of this project is to allow the Service to be able to predict the consequences of alternative actions for the persistence and recovery of the Indiana bat, particularly in light of ongoing mortality due to WNS

 

2009

USGS

Blehert, D;Wright;;;;;

USGS

Investigation of treatment and control strategies of WNS in wild bats

 

2009

USGS; NPS

Cryan, P;Castle, K;;;;;

USGS

Non-invasive surveillance of bat hibernacula to investigate potential behavioral causes of mortality associated with WNS

 

2009

USGS; USFWS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

A study of bat-to-bat transmission of WNS

The goal of this study is investigate the possibility of bat-to bat transmission of WNS in environmental chambers under hibernation conditions.  This effort seeks to improve our understanding of how WNS is spreading among bat populations.

 

2009

Unknown

Hicks, A;;;;;;

NYDEC

Field testing topical applications of terbinafine for the control of WNS in hibernating bats

The goal of this study is to test if the anti-fungal terbinafine is effective in controlling the spread of Gd and reduce WNS related mortality.

 

2008

BCI

Dannelly;Chamberlain;Whitaker, J;;;;

Importance of insect chitin as an energy source for bats

The goals of this study are to determine the significance of chitin utilization as a source of energy for hibernating bats and determine the bacterial flora present in WNS affected bats with emphasis on the makeup or lack of chitinase producing bacteria.

 

2008

BCI

Kunz, T;;;;;;

Boston U

A novel BatCam for censusing maternity colonies of bats in regions affected by white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to develop and test remote surveillance cameras and web interface for monitoring emergence activity of colonial bats.

 

2008

NSF

Frank, C;Hicks, A;Kunz, T;Rudd, R;;;

Fordham U

The potential role of dietary alpha-linolenic acid in WNS

 

2008

NSS

Kunz, T;;;;;;

Boston U

Death by starvation: An hypothesis-based investigation of white-nose syndrome in the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus)

The goal of this study is to investigate patterns of fat storage and depletion, and body condition of little brown myotis in relation to WNS status at sites in New England.  This study also produced measurements of dietary fatty acids and immune function in WNS affected bats.

 

2008

NSS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Flourescent in situ hybridization analysis of WNS affected bats and geographic distribution of the psychrophilic fungus (Geomyces sp.) associated with white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to document the geographic distribution of  G. destructans in cave substrates in the eastern United States.  This study will test the hypothesis that G. destructans  is restricted to northeastern states (2008-2009)

 

2008

NSS; BCI

Moore, M;Kunz, T;;;;;

Boston U

Are hibernating bats affected with white-nose syndrome immunocompromised?

The goal of this field-based study is to assess various aspects of relative immune function in WNS+ and WNS-, young and adult bats.  Researchers will also explore the relative immunocompetence of bats at different stages of arousal from torpor.

 

2008

NSS; BCI; MSU

Tomasi, T;Janicki, A;;;;;

Missouri State U

Winter energetics of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome

The goal of this study is to quantify the torpid metabolic rates of hibernating little brown bats with and without WNS to explore energetic changes associated with the disease.  Metabolic rates were also analyzed in relation to body masses, plasma leptin concentrations, and body temperatures.

 

2008

USFWS

Reichard, J;Kunz, T;;;;;

Boston U

Monitoring the effects of white-nose syndrome on summer colonies of little brown bats

The goal of this study is to monitor body and wing conditions of little brown myotis at two maternity colonies near WNS-infected hibernacula in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. This work led to development of the wing damage index and estimates of changes in body mass during the active season for presumed-affected bats.

 

2008

USFWS

Reeder, D;Blehert, D;Buckles, E;Hicks, A;Field, K;;

Bucknell U

Assessing immune competence in bats naturally affected by WNS and in bats artificially infected by the suspected WNS Pathogen

The goal of this study is to determine whether bats affected by WNS have lower immune competence than unaffected bats.

 

2008

USFWS

Frick, W;Pollack, J;Reynolds, DS;Kunz, T;;;

Central Coastal Bat Research Group

Baseline data relevant to the white-nose syndrome crisis: Analysis of survival, fecundity and colony population trends of Myotis lucifugus in northeastern US for the past 15 years

 

2008

USFWS

Buckles, E;;;;;;

Cornell U

Histopathological and microbiological evaluation of Chiropteran wing membranes for fungal induced damage

The goal of this study is to characterize skin infections associated with WNS

 

2008

USFWS

Willis, C;Boyles, J;Timonin, M;Jonasson, K;Parkinson, T;;

U Winnipeg

Can artificial thermal refugia reduce mortality associated with white-nose syndrome? 

The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that artificial warm refugia placed in hibernacula may promote survival of hibernating bats.

 

2008

USFWS

Darling, S;;;;;;

Vermont FWD

Regional surveillance of white-nose syndrome

The goals of this study are to track the spread and effects of WNS in VT, NH, and MA and participate in research conducted in New England. Collect sample material for genetic or lab analyses, respond to public inquiries and document and track unusual bat sightings, and report completed on winter hibernacula surveys, summer trapping and participation in other field activities.

 

2008

USFWS

Reynolds, R;;;;;;

Virginia DGIF

Hibernacula and post-hibernacula surveillance in Virginia for identifying white-nose syndrome

 

2008

USFWS; USGS

Blehert, D;;;;;;

USGS

Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization probe for G. destructans

The goal of this study is to develop and test molecular probes to be used to positively identify the fungal hyphae involved in infections indicative of white-nose syndrome in bats.