Research & Monitoring

Research


  • A sortable excel spreadsheet with the table below is available for download here: WNS research summaries
  • Additional information on USFWS funded projects is available here: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Funded Projects

  • To request changes or additions to this table, please contact Jonathan Reichard


  • Key to funding source abbreviations
    BCI = Bat Conservation International
    DoD = Department of Defense
    Morris Animal = Morris Animal Foundation
    NPS = National Park Service
    NSF = National Science Foundation
    NSS = National Speleological Society
    NYDEC = New York Department of Environmental Conservation
    USFS = United States Forest Service
    USFWS = United States Fish and Wildlife Service
    USGS = United States Geological Survey

    Year funded

    Funding source

    Investigators

    Primary agency/ instit./org.

    Project title

    Project description

    2014

    USFWS, USGS

    Ballmann, A

    USGS

    Expanded surveillance for the detection of Pseudogymnoascus destructans distribution and spread of WNS in the continental United States

    The goal of this project is to expand the network of diagnostic labs involved in the national effort to conduct surveillance of Pd. The efforts will expand the use of swabbing and PCR analyses to detect the fungus.

     

     

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Management of bat white-nose-syndrome through protective skin fungi and activation of host immune response

    The goal of this study is to explore the potential WNS-mitigating role of naturally occurring skin microbes on bats.

     

     

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Management of bat white-nose-syndrome by suppression of pathogenic environmental reservoirs

    The goal of this effort is to identify characteristics of fungistatic soils and explore the possibility of influencing these characteristics to reduce the potential for cave soils to serve as reservoirs for Pd.

     

     

    Rocke, T

    USGS

    Oral vaccines and delivery methods for controlling disease in bats

    The goal of this project is to develop an oral delivery mechanism to distribute vaccines among colonial roosting bats. Related studies are underway to identify possible vaccines for WNS.

    USFWS, USGS, NPS, USFS, IDFG

    Ellison, L

    USGS

    NABat framework develiopment and 2014 pilot

    The goal of this project is to develop the sampling frameowrk for NABat and conduct a pilot study of this framework in Idaho.

     

    USFWS, NPS

    Castle, K

    NPS

    Testing cleaning and disinfection products for efficacy against Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    The goal of this study is to identify and test possible decontaminating and disinfecting agents useful in cleaning gear and minimizing the possible spread of Pd from infected caves. Through this effort, researchers will identify agents suitable for footbaths and other decontamination methods used at commercial caves and cave parks.

     

    USFWS, USFS

    Lindner, D

    USFS

    Using genomics and transcriptomics to understand and combat WNS: Determining and targeting virulence factors in Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    The goal of this study is to identify the molecular tool-box for virulence in Pd. This information will inform efforts to develop Pd-management strategies that reduce the may reduce the virulence of the fungus to bats.

     

     

    Loeb, S

    USFS

    Survival and dispersal of cave-hibernating bats in the southern and Midwestern U.S following WNS infection

    The goal of this study is to initiate a large scale banding effort to monitor impacts of WNS on bats in the southeast and midwest.

     

    Sandeno, C

    USFS

    Development of Educational Tools to Inform and Engage the Public in Bat Conservation and White-Nose Syndrome Efforts (Project Edubat)

    The goal of this project is to develop curricula and outreach materials to inform citizens about bats and WNS.

    2013

    USFWS

    Amelon, S

    USFS

    Frequency and progression of Geomyces destructans infection and white-nose syndrome (WNS) on gray bats (Myotis grisescens) held in captivity

    The goal of this study is to determine the degree to which Myotis grisescens develop symptoms of WNS in environmental chambers.  Bats were collected from WNS positive sites and housed under controlled conditions to monitor progression of the disease (if infected) and to test captive conditions most appropriate for housing this species.

     

     

    Britzke, E

    DOD

    Investigation into the torpor patterns of hibernating gray bats: Implications for WNS

    The goal of this study is to quantify body temperature and arousal frequencies in free-ranging gray bats.  These efforts seek to improve our understanding of how hibernation ecology and behavior in this species may influence its susceptibility to WNS.

     

     

    Hicks, A

    Vesper

    Band retention, band-related mortality, and the consequences of winter handling, on Myotis lucifugus near the WNS zone

    The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of the costs of banding and the costs of winter disturbances in bats to determine which management and research actions are worth the risk in combating WNS.

     

     

    Lindner, D

    USFS

    Determining the importance of environmental reservoirs in disease development and transmission of white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to better understand the importance of soil as a reservoir for Gd and to determine the timing of when the fungus infests soils.

     

     

    Willis, C

    U. Winnipeg

    Laboratory studies of host-pathogen interactions between Geomyces destructans and bats

    The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that hypotonic dehydration affects torpor arousal cycles and survival, and evaluate the feasibility of electrolyte supplementation as a non-chemical treatment for WNS

    USFWS (LCC, WNS), NIMBioS

    Loeb, S

    USFS

    Developing a comprehensive modeling strategy for estimating trends in North American bat species distributions and abundances

    The goal of this project is to develop a continental framework for monitoring bat populations.  The framework will use mobile and stationary acoustic monitoring, and colony count data fed into the Bat Population Data Project.

     

    NPS

    Castle, K

    NPS

    Decontamination agents for use at parks and show caves

    The goal of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of agents that can be used to clean shoes and equipment used in caves.  In particular, agents useful to decontaminate and/or denature P.d. that may be picked up by tourists visiting commercial or show caves will be tested and assessed to permit this specific application. 

     

    BCI

    Boyles, J

    So. Illinois U.

    Top-down suppression of herbivory by bats in agroecosystems

    This study will use a large-scale exclosure experiment in a corn-dominated landscape to evaluate the top-down suppression of bats on crop pests. Researchers will evaluate the progression and density of crop pests and the actual damage done to corn plants to better understand the ecosystem services provided by insectivorous bats.

     

     

    Hoyt, J

    U. California, Santa Cruz

    The role of beneficial bacteria in protecting bats from white-nose syndrome

     

    Puechmaille, S

    U. College Dublin

    Identifying the European source population of North American Geomyces destructans

    The goals of this study are to identify the distribution of Gd across Europe via  systematic sediment sampling, wall swabbing and when appropriate, bat swabbing and to identify the source population of North American Gd using additional genotyping for European isolates.

     

    Morris Animal

    Keeler, S

    U. California, Davis

    Improving methods for studying white-nose syndrome in bats

    The goal of this study is to look at methods for improving the growth and maintenance of fungal cultures in the laboratory, allowing researchers to study the disease process and test potential treatments. 

     

     

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    Survey bat populations to gauge disease risk

    Researchers will survey the genetic diversity of little brown myotis populations at swarming sites and near hibernation locations used in fall and winter to learn how these bats disperse. They will then use the data to predict the bats’ migration routes and identify other bat populations at risk.

     

     

    Sorenson, M

    Boston U.

    White-nose syndrome research at Boston U.

    The goal of this project is to support  ongoing efforts on little brown myotis genomics and MHC (and perhaps other immune system genes). 

    2012

    USFWS

    Ballmann, A

    USGS

    Assessing the risk of Geomyces destructans transmission by bats that occupy contaminated hibernacula in late summer

    The goal of this study is to investigate the potential for bats using caves within WNS epidemic areas during late summer to harbor viable Pd and serve as potential risks for pathogen transmission among bats during fall swarm activities and/or source of pathogen movement to previously uncontaminated hibernacula.  Presence of Pd on bats, gear, and substrates was determined by swabbing and PCR analysis.

     

     

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Characterization of climatic parameters within bat hibernacula, their influence on environmental loads of Geomyces destructans, and implications for the mitigation of white-nose syndrome in bats

    The goal of this study is to characterize conditions within and among six representative bat hibernacula in the eastern US, which will aid in understanding the role of the environment in WNS epidemiology and provide a basis by which to assess the effectiveness of WNS management strategies.

     

     

    Chaturvedi, V

    New York State Department of Health

    Fungal biocontrol agents for alleviation or remediation of Geomyces destructans

    The goal of this study is to identify the most effective fungal biocontrol agent(s) against Gd.

     

     

    Frick, W

    U. California, Santa Cruz

    Antifungal skin microbes as tools for WNS management

    The goal of this study is to identify the presence of beneficial bacteria on bats that can reduce the growth of Pd in culture

     

     

    Reeder, D

    Bucknell U.

    Understanding WNS survivors: Exploring resilience and resistance to variable levels of Geomyces destructans exposure in context of mitigation and conservation

    This study focuses on understanding why a small number of bats survive WNS and determining if these bats can withstand multiple winters of exposure to WNS

     

     

    Vonhof, M

    W. Michigan U.

    Test of biocompatible, biodegradable, widely available and inexpensive anti-fungal agent on the growth of G. destructans on experimentally infected bats under controlled laboratory conditions

    The goal of this study is to test the efficacy of chitosan as a treatment option against Pd. The set of preliminary tests found that chitosan significantly reduced fungal loads on bats that were treated early in the hibernation season, showing that this may be an effective treatment plan for WNS.

     

     

    Willis, C

    U. Winnipeg

    Pre- and post-WNS survival of bats assessed using passive transponders on a continental scale

    The goal of this study is to PIT-tag and archive genetic samples from 10,000 bats to aid in surveillance of and studies for WNS.

     

     

    Willis, C

    U. Winnipeg

    Studies of host-pathogen interactions between Geomyces destructans and bats

     

    BCI

    Cornelison, C

    Georgia State U.

    Evaluation of multiply induced Rhodococchus rhodochrous DAP 96253 cells for in situ application as a biological control agent of Geomyces destructans

     

     

    Foster, J

    N. Arizona U.

    Evaluating sensitive molecular detection of Geomyces destructans

     The goal of this study is to evaluate a dual-probe TaqMan qPCR assay that is capable of detecting and quantifying both Gd and its close allies in Geomyces, and yet distinguish between them.  Researchers will optimize and validate DNA extraction methods to obtain fungal DNA from samples relevant to WNS research such as bat skin swabs, tissue biopsies, soil, and guano.

     

     

    Frick, W

    U. California, Santa Cruz

    Laboratory studies of acquired resistance to Geomyces destructans

    The goal of this study is to use laboratory infection trails with first year survivors to investigate acquired resistance to Gd infection and its potential relationship to survivorship in the second year of infection. Researchers will test reinfection in both captive and wild survivors.

     

     

    Fuller, N

    Boston U.

    Understanding the critical recovery phase: Laboratory studies of wing healing in survivors of white-nose syndrome

     This study will address critical knowledge gaps in physical and physiological challenges of recovery from WNS by quantifying the healing process using histopathology and photographic analysis, quantifying the relationship between wing healing and physiological function, and using molecular methods to determine the
    temporal relationship between Gd infectivity and the healing process in active bats.

     

    NSS

    Lee, M

    Miami U. (Ohio)

    Effects of temperature on germination of Geomyces destructans from WNS affected regions of the United States

    The goal of this study is to investigate differences in germination rates and frequencies for G. destructans isolates collected over a broad geographic range.  Researchers will explore geographical differences in G. destructans' response to temperature.

     

     

    Moore, M

    Bucknell U.

    The role of oxidative stress in the development of white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress in morbidity and mortality of little brown myotis with WNS.  This study will provide new knowledge about the proximate cause of death from WNS.

     

     

    Seeliger, R

    Missouri State U.

    Monitoring gray bat (Myotis grisescens) populations at a priority 1 hibernaculum in Missouri

    The goal of this study is to compare automated counting software for thermal infrared video footage of gray bats at a hibernaculum.

     

     

    Turner, G

    PAGC

    An investigation and comparison of flourescent activity among three classes of bats: naive, presumed survivors, and European

    The goal of this study is to develop non-lethal diagnostic tools involving fluorescence of G. destructans under UV light.

     

    Soc. Cons. Biol.

    Hayman, D

    Colorado State U.

    Understanding white-nose syndrome dynamics to mitigate the precipitous decline of North American bats

    The goal of this study is to integrate modeling and empirical field and lab studies to  develop a conceptual framework for disease ecology that allows predictions to be made about which bat species in North America are likely to be affected by WNS, and allow comparative studies between European and American systems.

     

    SUNY

    Morgan, S

    SUNY Albany

    The affects of WNS on genetic drift in bat populations

    The goal of this study is to document the probable genetic drift in Myotis lucifugus in the epicenter of WNS outbreak (using neutral microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA with samples from 2003-2005 and 2008-2011, representing the population before and after the major mortality occurring during 2006-2007 in that region. Tissue samples are collected primarily from bats submitted to the NYS Department of Health for rabies testing.

    2011

     

    USFWS

    Chaturvedi, V

    NY Dept. Health

    A systematic study of Geomyces destructans within WNS infected hibernacula in New York

    The goals of this study are to define the natural habitat of G. destructans, determine if it grows in the hibernacula environment or exclusively on bats, and study other fungi that share similar natural habitats and their roles in fungal survival.

     

     

    Keel, MK

    U. Georgia

    Applied research designed to assist mitigation of white-nose syndrome in bats

    The goal of this study is to refine the use of tissue explants (small samples of live skin from bat patagia) as a model of white-nose syndrome, describe the pathogenesis of white-nose syndrome in bats, and assess the ability of G. destructans to infect bat skin of multiple species.

     

     

    Taylor

    White-nose syndrome and Illinois bat populations: Biology and monitoring

    The goal of this study is to establish a monitoring program for the rapid and early detection of the fungus, G. destructans, on bat specimens from Illinois, characterize the background microbial load present in the fur of potential bat vectors of G. destructans, and characterize the establishment potential of G. destructans in Illinois cave environments.

     

    Amelon, S

    USFS

    Estimating the value of ecosystem services provided by bats

    The goal of this study is to estimate the economic value of bats in pest control services to both agricultural and forest systems in various areas of the region.

     

    USGS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Development of enhanced sampling and diagnostic techniques

     

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Investigations of the environmental persistence of G. destructans

     

    USFWS, USGS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Characterization of Geomyces spp. fungi closely related to G. destructans

     

    BCI

    Barton, H

    N. Kentucky U.

    Species differences and innate immunity to Geomyces colonization in bat populations.

     

     

    Buckles, E

    Cornell U.

    Can hibernating bats mount an immune response to skin disease?

     

     

    Janicki, A

    Missouri State U.

    Energetic abnormalities of white-nose syndrome in bats

     

     

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    The impact of wing damage caused by white-nose syndrome in little brown myotis

     

     

    Langwig, K

    Boston U.

    Host community susceptibility to white-nose syndrome, US (NY, VT, CT, PA).

     

     

    Lee, M

    Miami U. (Ohio)

    Genetic structure of Ozark big-eared bat populations and establishment of a noninvasive population-monitoring program (OK, AR).

     

     

    Powers, L

    U. Illinois

    Effects of nonlethal Geomyces destructans infection on reproductive rate and parturition date in cave-hibernating bats, US (IL).

     

    NSS

    Fuller, N

    Boston U.

    The impact of wing damage caused by white-nose syndrome in little brown myotis

    The goal of this study is to determine the influence of severe wing damage on foraging effort and reproductive success, and to quantify the degree to which bats recover from wing injuries.

     

     

    Hughes, K

    U. New Mexico

    Natural micro-biome of bats

    The goal of this study is to establish baseline data on microbiota for two prominent western bat species that may be susceptible to WNS.

     

     

    McAlpine, D

    Canadian Wildlife Federation

    A proposal to collect and culture fungi from WNS-infected bats to determine if pre- and post-WNS fungal communities differ and to identify any fungi present that may have the potential to interact with G. destructans

    The goal of this study is to track the arrival of WNS in New Brunswick, monitor epidemiological data and examine the broader fungal community on WNS-infected bats.

     

     

    Sousa, M

    U. Tennessee

    Evaluation of a terbinafine impregnated subcutaneous implant for the treatment of Geomyces destructans infected bats

    The goal of this study is to test the efficacy of subcutaneous implants of antifungal terbinafine  to curb G. destructans infection in bats.  Researchers conducted histopathology on tissues of subjects and developed assays to measure terbinafine implants in skin.

     

    NSF

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    The effect of sociality on transmission and spread of a multi-host pathogen

    The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the WNS disease is transmitted at local, regional, and continental scales.  Focus  on bat social behavior, such as the size of congregating groups and assortment within groups, which are known to vary both within and between bat species during different seasons. Hypothesize that disease transmission from bat-to-bat and cave-to-cave is affected by temporal and spatial variation in how bat social groups are organized.

    2010

     

    USFWS

    Akiyoshi, D

    Tufts U.

    A transcriptome approach to study the host-pathogen interactions in WNS

    The goal of this study is to identify fungal pathogenicity factors that may provide insight into disease management strategies. They will generate transcriptome profiles from pure Gd cultures (two USA and two European), three uninfected M. lucifugus from the USA, and three M. lucifugus infected with Gd (USA), compare generated profiles, and analyze changes in gene expression levels on a genome-wide scale with the goal to identify both host and fungal genes associated with the infection process.

     

     

    Amelon, S

    USFS

    Assessing the impact of WNS on the genetic viability of Indiana bats.

    The goal of this study is to model population structure for Indiana bats to predict migration pathways, genetic loss, and risk of extinction, and compare genetic info of affected and non-affected individuals. They will obtain representative isolates of skin bacteria and fungi from selected bat species,  and screen them for antagonistic activity towards G. destructans.

     

     

    Amelon, S

    USFS

    Evaluation of non-pathogenic bat skin microbes for antagonistic activity to Geomyces destructans

    The goal of this study is to evaluate non-pathogenic bat skin microbes for antagonistic activity to Geomyces destructans by obtaining representative isolates of skin bacteria and fungi from selected bat species.  They will screen isolates for antagonistic activity towards Geomyces destructans, and ultimately, test the most promising antagonists as potential biological control agents for white-nose syndrome.

     

     

    Barton, H

    N. Kentucky U.

    Natural history of Geomyces in cave environments: phylogeny, ecosystem activities, natural and anthropogenic transport

    The goal of this study is to determine how G. destructans may be spread by both natural and human activities with attention to growth and niche preferences.   Researchers will develop a library of Geomyces species from different hibernacula over a geographic area.

     

     

    Foster, J

    N. Arizona U.

    Fine-scale population structure in Gd: fungal genetics for understanding dispersal, transmission, and effects of WNS

    The goals of this study are to develop microsatellites, grow and extract fungal DNA, initial testing and screening of microsatellites, and analyze genetic data.

     

     

    Lindner, D

    USFS

    Development of DNA-based detection techniques capable of differentiating Gd from closely related non-pathogenic Geomyces species

    The goal of this study is to produce the entire genome sequence of 8 Geomyces isolates that are closely related to G. destructans and develop and test DNA-based detection methods on a variety of sample types, including cave soil samples, bat fecal samples and bat swab samples.

     

     

    Maslo, B

    Rutgers U.

    Survival Analysis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) in the Wake of White-Nose Syndrome

    The goal of this project is to conduct post-WNS pre-emergence banding of little brown bats at Hibernia Mine in New Jersey. This project was initiated in 2010 and after 4 years of mark-recapture efforts, strong support for the presence of a time-varying amelioration of annual survival was found. However, Hibernia Mine is still experiencing an overall decline in abundance, suggesting a strong WNS-induced penalty on 1st-year survival and/or fecundity. Banding efforts will continue to establish a long-term post-WNS survival dataset, and a separate analysis of post-WNS female reproductive success and juvenile survival will be initiated.

     

    Reeder, D

    Bucknell U.

    Who will survive? Exploring individual, sex, and species differences in susceptibility and resistance to WNS

    The goal of this study is to describe between-species and within-species variation in response to infection with Gd (including the potential lack of infection in some species/individuals, who may be exposed to the fungus [PCR+], but not develop WNS). Determine whether natural selection for traits leading to resistance against Gd/WNS is plausible.

     

    USFWS, USGS

    Willis, C

    U. Winnipeg

    Evaluating the pathogenecity of North American and European strains of Gd in cave bats, tree bats, and other mammalian hibernators

    The goal of this study is to determine the susceptibility of North American little brown bats to European isolates of Gd and quantify the severity of physiological and histopathological signs of infection between European and North America isolates of the fungus.  Determine the propensity of North American big brown bats and silver-haired bats to become infected with Gd (relative to little brown bats) and quantify the severity of physiological and histopathological signs of infection among these species.  Test the dehydration hypothesis by comparing physiological measurements from infected vs. control little brown, silver-haired and big brown bats following infection with Gd.

     

    USGS

    Cryan, P

    USGS

    Assessing homeostatic balance in bats affected by WNS

     

    NYDEC

    Okoeniewski, J

    NYDEC

    Summer transmission of WNS

    The goals of this study are to investigate persistence and detectability of G. destructans after emergence from hibernation and during summer months.

     

    NSS

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    Measuring cytokine profiles in hibernating Myotis lucifugus affected by white-nose syndrome: assessment of immunocomptetence levels in bats affected versus unaffected bats

    The goal of this study is to determine levels of immunocompetence related to WNS, physiological restraints of hibernation, and states of euthermia.  This effort incorporates cytokine profile assays into a multifaceted study of immunocompetence that includes batericidal and fungicidal assays, circulating antibodies, Creactive proteins, antioxidants, neutrophyl/lymphocite ratios, and white blood cell counts.

     

    Whidden, H

    E. Stroudsburg U.

    Assessment of bat activity in Luzerne County, PA, after white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to assess regional bat population declines on the summer landscape.  Researchers will use acoustic monitoring at a wind turbine site for comparison of data pre-WNS and post-WNS.

     

    Morris Animal

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    Assessing population genetic structure and gene flow in the little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus

     

    Broad Institute, MIT

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Geomyces destructans genome sequencing project

    The goal of this study is to sequence the genome of Geomyces destructans.

    2009

     

    USFWS

    Akiyoshi, D

    Tufts U.

    Generation of G. destructans specific monoclonal antibodies

    The goal of this study is to generate and characterize  monoclonal antibodies against G. destructans to help develop rapid, sensitive field tests for the fungus. They will characterize  monoclonal antibodies by isotype analysis, cross-reactivity studies with bacteria, fungi and other organisms, which represent common bat cave flora, and Western blot analysis (to identify sizes and number of cross-reacting proteins).

     

     

    Barton, H

    N. Kentucky U.

    The propagation and decontamination of WNS in the environment 

    The goals of this study are to provide updates on the treatment of rope and mist-net samples using Woolite/Lysol, which may also be effective for cave/hibernacula equipment; the use and effectiveness of Agent C in a hibernacula; and the creation of a fungal library.

     

     

    Butchkoski, C

    PAGC

    Summer maternity bat colony – emergence counts and/or trapping surveys

    The goal of this study is to conduct long-term maternity colony monitoring to investigate presence and health effects of WNS on bats during summer. Investigators will develop a regional database for these data.

     

     

    Hallam, T

    U. Tennessee

    Effects of white-nose syndrome on hibernating bat populations: Application of stochastic mathematical models

    The goal of this study is to outline three priorities that have been investigated in relation to WNS: 1). Estimate the probabilities for infection in uninfected hibernacula; 2). Formulate and optimize control strategies; and 3). Demonstrate environmental conditions that govern the structure of WNS to discover more about Gd. Progress in each priority has been outlined, and preliminary abstracts have been provided.

     

     

    Hicks, A

    NYDEC

    Testing the transmission of WNS from hibernacula to the little brown bat

    The goal of this study is to test transmission of WNS from an infected cave to healthy little brown myotis

     

     

    Iwanowicz, D

    USGS

    Differential expression profiles of miRNA in the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with WNS affected and unaffected individuals

    The goals of this study are to develop and validate miRNA profiles as suitable biomarkers of little brown bat physiological condition and health.  WNS affected and healthy bats will be compared to identify diagnostic profiles that may be used to predict at risk populations prior to the manifestation of clinical evidence of WNS

     

     

    Kershmer, J

    NJDFW

    Experimental treatment of captive WNS affected little brown bats with vinegar wash

    The goal of this study is to determine whether vinegar wash treatment or simple rehabilitative care will "cure" WNS affected bats.

     

     

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    Changes in body composition and immune responses in pre-hibernating and hibernating little brown myotis affected and unaffected by WNS.

    The goal of this study is to assess changes in various aspects of immune response in hibernating bats.  Immune assays are analyzed in relation to stages of hibernation, availability of fat reserves, and states of torpor.

     

     

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    Investigation of body composition, immunocompetence, activity patterns and genetic correlates to understand WNS effects on hibernating bats

    The goal of this study is to examine innate and adaptive immune responses for active and hibernating bats in WNS-affected and unaffected hibernacula. Destructive body composition analyses were conducted on little brown myotis measured for immunocompetence.  Tissue samples were collected for genetic analyses to characterize the genetic makeup at the MHC for T cell responses.

     

     

    Robbins, A

    Tufts U.

    Generation of Geomyces destructans-specific monoclonal antibodies

     

     

    Secord, A

    USFWS

    Evaluation of the potential role of environmental contaminants in significant bat mortality in the northeastern United States

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential role of environmental contaminants in the recent massive mortality of thousands of bats in the northeastern United States known as white-nose syndrome.

     

     

    Songsasen, N

    Smithsonian

    Establishing a security population of the Virginia big-eared bat at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park

    The goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of establishing a population of Virginia big-eared bats in captivity.

     

     

    Williams

    WNS investigation and response – competitive state wildlife grants program

     

    USFWS, USGS

    Thogmartin, W

    USGS

    Population demographic models for the conservation of endangered Indiana bats at risk to white-nose syndrome.

    The goal of this project is to allow the Service to be able to predict the consequences of alternative actions for the persistence and recovery of the Indiana bat, particularly in light of ongoing mortality due to WNS

     

    Cryan, P

    USGS

    WNS Specimen Tracking System

    The goal of this study is to provide technical assistance to the USFWS Region 5 to construct a geospatially oriented data support system for tracking information on WNS specimens (e.g., carcasses, tissues), from collection through analysis.

     

    USGS, USFWS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    A study of bat-to-bat transmission of WNS

    The goal of this study is investigate the possibility of bat-to bat transmission of WNS in environmental chambers under hibernation conditions.  This effort seeks to improve our understanding of how WNS is spreading among bat populations.

     

    USGS, NPS

    Cryan, P

    USGS

    Non-invasive surveillance of bat hibernacula to investigate potential behavioral causes of mortality associated with WNS

     

    USGS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Investigation of treatment and control strategies of WNS in wild bats

     

    USFWS, Stantec

    Darling, S

    VTFWD

    WNS acoustic monitoring project at Grandpa’s Knob, Rutland County, Vermont

    The goal of this study is to repeat acoustic surveys conducted for a proposed wind farm in the Lake Champlain area of VT to determine whether a trend can be detected as a result of elevated mortality levels due to WNS in VT and NY hibernacula.

     

    USFWS, NSS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Geographic distribution of the psychrophilic fungus (Geomyces sp.) associated with white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to document the geographic distribution of G. destructans in cave sediments.

     

    USFWS, DoD

    Herzog, C

    NYDEC

    Acoustic monitoring of bat populations

    The goal of this study is to conduct long-term acoustic transect surveys to evaluate changes in species composition and relative abundance.

     

    BCI

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Demonstrating a causal link between a Geomyces spp. fungus and white-nose syndrome in little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus).

     

     

    Herzog, C

    NYDEC

    A proposal to design an automated bat counter

     

     

    Reeder, D

    Bucknell U.

    Studying immune competence in “healthy” bats and bats affected by white-nose syndrome

     

    NSS

    Barton, H

    N. Kentucky U.

    Decontamination issues and the natural history of Geomyces species in cave environments

    The goal of this study is to develop decontamination techniques that can be used by field researchers and recreational cavers to limit the spread of WNS.  Tests were conducted with G. pannorum.  Additional analyses to understand the presence and scope of Geomyces species in caves to address questions about the origin of Gd.

     

     

    Brownlee, S

    Bucknell U.

    Behavior of bats affected by white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to describe the behavioral responses of bats to different temperatures and WNS presence in natural hibernacula and in captivity.  Researchers will use digital video recorders and acoustic equipment to determine if bats are echolocating while hibernating and identify specific activities during arousal bouts.

     

     

    Grieneisen, L

    Bucknell U.

    Hibernacula microclimate and white-nose syndrome susceptibility

    The goal of this study is to describe the relationship between hibernacula microclimate and progression of WNS, and to determine the microclimate preferences in WNS-affected and unaffected bats.

     

     

    Orndorff, W

    VADGIF

    Fall swarm monitoring and tracking of Virginia bats affected by white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to assess species biometric and health status at WNS+ and WNS- caves in Virginia.  Bats were captured in harp traps during the fall swarm.

     

     

    Pannkuk, E

    Arkansas State U.

    Fungal digestion of Chiropteran integument

    The goal of this study is to quantify the amount of mechanical damage caused to bat integument by invasion of the G. destructans.  Methods involve in vitro analysis of the timing and extent of mechanical damage by Gd in little brown bats. 

     

     

    Reynolds, R

    VADGIF

    Fall swarm monitoring and tracking of Virginia bats affected by WNS

    The goals of this study are to capture, assess, and band bats at both WNS positive and negative locations, band bats to facilitate tracking of WNS in individuals, and conduct surveillance of bats at WNS positive and negative sties in Virginia.

    Unknown

    Frick, W

    Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus

    The goal of this study is to use 16 years of mark-recapture data from a maternity colony of little brown bats to research and investigations to attempt to estimate annual survival and breeding probabilities. This information can then be used to predict how climate changes may affect bat population stability.

     

     

    Gargas, A

    USGS

    Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to determine that the fungus responsible for WNS is a new species of fungus called Geomyces destructans.

     

     

    Hicks, A

    NYDEC

    Field testing topical applications of terbinafine for the control of WNS in hibernating bats

    The goal of this study is to test if the anti-fungal terbinafine is effective in controlling the spread of Gd and reduce WNS related mortality.

     

     

    Meteyer., C

    USGS

    Histopathological criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    The goal of this study is to report details surrounding the histopathological criteria used to confirm WNS in bats. Includes studies and finding. Histopathological confirmation is an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable way to diagnose this disease.

     

     

    Smith, R.

    White-nose syndrome regional suveillance and winter hibernacula surveys

    The goal of this project is to provide information on the emergence of WNS and the action plans in response to the disease and its mortality rate. The objectives of this project include coordinating field surveillance, research projects, data collection, hibernacula surveys, specimen collection and submission, and public outreach for WNS in Vermont, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire.

    2008

    USFWS

    Buckles, E

    Cornell U.

    Histopathological and microbiological evaluation of Chiropteran wing membranes for fungal induced damage

    The goal of this study is to characterize skin infections associated with WNS

     

     

    Darling, S

    VTFWD

    Regional surveillance of white-nose syndrome

    The goals of this study are to track the spread and effects of WNS in VT, NH, and MA and participate in research conducted in New England. Collect sample material for genetic or lab analyses, respond to public inquiries and document and track unusual bat sightings, and report completed on winter hibernacula surveys, summer trapping and participation in other field activities.

     

     

    Frick, W

    Central Coastal Bat Research Group

    Baseline data relevant to the white-nose syndrome crisis: Analysis of survival, fecundity and colony population trends of Myotis lucifugus in northeastern US for the past 15 years

     

     

    Reeder, D

    Bucknell U.

    Assessing immune competence in bats naturally affected by WNS and in bats artificially infected by the suspected WNS Pathogen

    The goal of this study is to determine whether bats affected by WNS have lower immune competence than unaffected bats.

     

     

    Reichard, J

    Boston U.

    Monitoring the affects of white-nose syndrome on summer colonies of little brown bats

    The goal of this study is to monitor body and wing conditions of little brown myotis at two maternity colonies near WNS-infected hibernacula in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. This work led to development of the wing damage index and estimates of changes in body mass during the active season for presumed-affected bats.

     

     

    Reynolds, R

    VADGIF

    Hibernacula and post-hibernacula surveillance in Virginia for identifying white-nose syndrome

     

     

    Willis, C

    U. Winnipeg

    Can artificial thermal refugia reduce mortality associated with white-nose syndrome? 

    The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that artificial warm refugia placed in hibernacula may promote survival of hibernating bats.

    USFWS, USGS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization probe for G. destructans

    The goal of this study is to develop and test molecular probes to be used to positively identify the fungal hyphae involved in infections indicative of white-nose syndrome in bats.

     

    BCI

    Dannelly

    Importance of insect chitin as an energy source for bats

    The goals of this study are to determine the significance of chitin utilization as a source of energy for hibernating bats and determine the bacterial flora present in WNS affected bats with emphasis on the makeup or lack of chitinase producing bacteria.

     

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    A novel BatCam for censusing maternity colonies of bats in regions affected by white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to develop and test remote surveillance cameras and web interface for monitoring emergence activity of colonial bats.

     

    NSS, BCI, MSU

    Tomasi, T

    Missouri State U.

    Winter energetics of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to quantify the torpid metabolic rates of hibernating little brown bats with and without WNS to explore energetic changes associated with the disease.  Metabolic rates were also analyzed in relation to body masses, plasma leptin concentrations, and body temperatures.

     

    NSS, BCI

    Moore, M

    Boston U.

    Are hibernating bats affected with white-nose syndrome immunocompromised?

    The goal of this field-based study is to assess various aspects of relative immune function in WNS+ and WNS-, young and adult bats.  Researchers will also explore the relative immunocompetence of bats at different stages of arousal from torpor.

     

    NSS

    Blehert, D

    USGS

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of WNS affected bats and geographic distribution of the psychrophilic fungus (Geomyces sp.) associated with white-nose syndrome

    The goal of this study is to document the geographic distribution of  G. destructans in cave substrates in the eastern United States.  This study will test the hypothesis that G. destructans  is restricted to northeastern states (2008-2009)

     

    Kunz, T

    Boston U.

    Death by starvation: An hypothesis-based investigation of white-nose syndrome in the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus)

    The goal of this study is to investigate patterns of fat storage and depletion, and body condition of little brown myotis in relation to WNS status at sites in New England.  This study also produced measurements of dietary fatty acids and immune function in WNS affected bats.

     

    NSF

    Frank, C

    Fordham U.

    The potential role of dietary alpha-linoleic acid in WNS